Operating System

An Operating System is a collection of programs and utilities, An OS is an interface between user and computer. It creates a user-friendly environment. It is the main function of OS. Another main function of OS is resource management.
A Computer System has many resources (Hardware and Software) which may be required to complete a task. Software refers to the programs written to provide services to the users of the systems. Hardware refers to the physical computing equipment. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, Memory, file storage space, CPU and time.

The OS acts as the manager of these resources and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary for their tasks. So, We can say that an OS as a resource allocator. Same as the OS collects the resources from the network environment or within a system and grants the resources to requesting jobs.
When several computers connected through a network and more than one computer trying for a common printer, or a common resource then the OS follow some order and efficiently manage the resources. Generally, the resource is time-sharing, the first one of the task gets the resource for some time than another.

Structure of Operating System:

The structure of OS consists of 4 layers and these are:
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Systems Programs
4. Application programs

Hardware: The hardware part consists of CPU, Main Memory, I/O Devices, Secondary Storage, etc.

Software: The software includes process management routines, memory management routines, I/O controls routines, file management routines.

Systems Programs: The system programs layer consisting of compilers, Assemblers, linker, etc.

Application programs: An Application Program is a program or group of programs designed for end-users. The application programs depend on users.
There are mainly five types of Operating Systems are available in the world.
1. MAC
2. Windows
5. Solaris

Mac Operating System :

Mac OS is the most attractive operating system for Apple Computers of personal computers and workstations.
Mac OS developed by the American computer company Apple Inc. The OS was introduced in 1984 to run the company’s Macintosh line of personal computers (PCs). A popular feature of its latest version, Mac OS X, is a desktop interface with some 3-D appearance characteristics.

mac os

Windows Operating System :

Windows is a series of operating systems developed by Microsoft. Each version of Windows includes a graphical user interface (GUI). Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. Microsoft Windows is designed for both home computing and professional purposes.

Complete Windows Evolution:
1. Windows 1
2. Windows 2
3. Windows 3
4. Windows 3.1
5. Windows 95
6. Windows 98
7. Windows ME
8. Windows NT 3.1
9. Windows NT 4.0
10. Windows 2000
11. Windows XP
12. Windows Vista
13. Windows Server 2003
14. Windows 7
15. Windows 8
16. Windows Server 2008
17. Windows 8.1
18. Windows Server 2012
19. Windows 9
20. Windows 10
21. Windows Server 2016

Operating System

LINUX Operating System:

Linux is an open-source operating system. An operating system is a software that directly manages a system’s hardware and resources, like CPU, memory, and storage. Linux has a graphical user interface (GUI), and the same types of software you are accustomed to, such as word processors, photo editors, video editors, and so on.

linux os

UNIX Operating System:

UNIX is an operating system which was first developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Labs in the 1960s, UNIX is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking Operating system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows.

unix os

Solaris Operating System :

Solaris OS is the UNIX-based operating system of Sun Microsystems with roots in the BSD operating system family that is called SunOS. The first version of SunOS was published in 1982 With version 4.0.
It can handle a large workload and still keep operating smoothly across databases, systems and applications.

solaris os

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Operating System
    1. Generation of Computer 1st to 5th
    2. Memory Hierarchy in Computer Architecture
    3. Interrupts in Computer Architecture
    4. Cache Memory Mapping Techniques
    5. Direct Memory Access in Computer Architecture
    6. Functions and Services of OS
    7. Major Achievements of OS
    8. Types of Operating Systems
    9. Characteristics of Modern OS
    10. Architecture of Windows and Linux
    11. Process States in OS
    12. Difference Between Program and Process
    13. Process Control Block (PCB) in OS
    14. Life Cycle of Thread in OS
    15. Difference between User Level Thread and Kernel Level Thread
    16. Process Management in UNIX
    17. Windows 2000 Threads and SMP Management
    18. Linux Process and Thread Management
    19. Solaris Threads in Operating System
    20. CPU Scheduling Algorithms in Operating System
    21. Deadlock Detection And Recovery
    22. Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System
    23. Memory Management Requirements in OS
    24. Difference between Dynamic Loading and Dynamic Linking
    25. Partition Allocation Methods in Memory Management
    26. Difference between Internal and External Fragmentation
    27. Segmentation with Paging in OS
    28. Difference Between Paging and Segmentation
    29. Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)
    30. Virtual Memory in Operating System
    31. Belady’s Anomaly in OS
    32. Page Replacement Algorithms in OS
    33. Paging Memory Management
    34. Two Handed Clock Page Replacement
    35. Unix Process Scheduling
    36. Linux Memory Management
    37. Windows 2000 Memory Management
    38. PCI Bus Architecture
    39. Buffering in Distributed Operating System
    40. Disk Performance Parameters
    41. Disk Scheduling Algorithms with Examples
    42. Different types of RAID in OS
    43. Replacement Algorithm in Cache Memory
    44. Buffer Cache in UNIX Operating System
    45. Mutual Exclusion in OS
    46. Dekker’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion
    47. Peterson’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion
    48. Inter Process Communication in Distributed System
    49. Monitor Synchronization in OS
    50. Basic File Operations in OS
    51. File Management System in OS
    52. Free Space Management in OS
    53. Record Blocking Methods
    54. Unix File Management in OS
    55. Windows 2000 File System
    56. Architecture of UNIX Operating System with Diagram
    57. Protection and Security in Operating System