An Operating System is a collection of programs and utilities, An OS is an interface between user and computer. It creates a user-friendly environment. It is the main function of OS. Another main function of OS is resource management.
A Computer System has many resources (Hardware and Software) which may be required to complete a task. Software refers to the programs written to provide services to the users of the systems. Hardware refers to the physical computing equipment. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, Memory, file storage space, CPU and time.
The OS acts as the manager of these resources and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary for their tasks. So, We can say that an OS as a resource allocator. Same as the OS collects the resources from the network environment or within a system and grants the resources to requesting jobs.
When several computers connected through a network and more than one computer trying for a common printer, or a common resource then the OS follow some order and efficiently manage the resources. Generally, the resource is time-sharing, the first one of the task gets the resource for some time than another.
Structure of Operating System:
The structure of OS consists of 4 layers and these are:
3. Systems Programs
4. Application programs
Mac Operating System :
Mac OS is the most attractive operating system for Apple Computers of personal computers and workstations.
Mac OS developed by the American computer company Apple Inc. The OS was introduced in 1984 to run the company’s Macintosh line of personal computers (PCs). A popular feature of its latest version, Mac OS X, is a desktop interface with some 3-D appearance characteristics.
Windows Operating System :
Windows is a series of operating systems developed by Microsoft. Each version of Windows includes a graphical user interface (GUI). Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. Microsoft Windows is designed for both home computing and professional purposes.
Complete Windows Evolution:
LINUX Operating System:
Linux is an open-source operating system. An operating system is a software that directly manages a system’s hardware and resources, like CPU, memory, and storage. Linux has a graphical user interface (GUI), and the same types of software you are accustomed to, such as word processors, photo editors, video editors, and so on.
UNIX Operating System:
UNIX is an operating system which was first developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Labs in the 1960s, UNIX is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking Operating system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows.
Solaris Operating System :
Solaris OS is the UNIX-based operating system of Sun Microsystems with roots in the BSD operating system family that is called SunOS. The first version of SunOS was published in 1982 With version 4.0.
It can handle a large workload and still keep operating smoothly across databases, systems and applications.
1. Generation of Computer 1st to 5th
2. Memory Hierarchy in Computer Architecture
3. Interrupts in Computer Architecture
4. Cache Memory Mapping Techniques
5. Direct Memory Access in Computer Architecture
6. Functions and Services of OS
7. Major Achievements of OS
8. Types of Operating Systems
9. Characteristics of Modern OS
10. Architecture of Windows and Linux
11. Process States in OS
12. Difference Between Program and Process
13. Process Control Block (PCB) in OS
14. Life Cycle of Thread in OS
15. Difference between User Level Thread and Kernel Level Thread
16. Process Management in UNIX
17. Windows 2000 Threads and SMP Management
18. Linux Process and Thread Management
19. Solaris Threads in Operating System
20. CPU Scheduling Algorithms in Operating System
21. Deadlock Detection And Recovery
22. Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System
23. Memory Management Requirements in OS
24. Difference between Dynamic Loading and Dynamic Linking
25. Partition Allocation Methods in Memory Management
26. Difference between Internal and External Fragmentation
27. Segmentation with Paging in OS
28. Difference Between Paging and Segmentation
29. Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)
30. Virtual Memory in Operating System
31. Belady’s Anomaly in OS
32. Page Replacement Algorithms in OS
33. Paging Memory Management
34. Two Handed Clock Page Replacement
35. Unix Process Scheduling
36. Linux Memory Management
37. Windows 2000 Memory Management
38. PCI Bus Architecture
39. Buffering in Distributed Operating System
40. Disk Performance Parameters
41. Disk Scheduling Algorithms with Examples
42. Different types of RAID in OS
43. Replacement Algorithm in Cache Memory
44. Buffer Cache in UNIX Operating System
45. Mutual Exclusion in OS
46. Dekker’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion
47. Peterson’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion
48. Inter Process Communication in Distributed System
49. Monitor Synchronization in OS
50. Basic File Operations in OS
51. File Management System in OS
52. Free Space Management in OS
53. Record Blocking Methods
54. Unix File Management in OS
55. Windows 2000 File System
56. Architecture of UNIX Operating System with Diagram
57. Protection and Security in Operating System