Codd’s Rules is used to test DBMS’s concept against his relational model. Codd’s Rules is developed by E.F.Codd for RDBMS in 1970. It is also known as Codd’s 12 Rules.
The Codd’s Rules are given as follows:
Rule 1: Information Representation
In a relational database model, all information should be explicitly and logically represented by entering the data values in the form of tables. The information such as view and column names should be in the table form. Data stored in the data dictionary should also be in the tabular form.
Rule 2: Guaranteed Access
This rule refers to the fact that a table can be taken as a storage structure and at the intersection of each column and row, there will necessarily be only one specific value of data item (or null). So, every value of data item must be logically addressable by using a combination of table_name, primary-key-value and the column-name.
Rule 3: Systematic Treatment of Null Values
In a relational database management system, null values should be supported for the representation of missing and inapplicable information only. The Database management system must have a consistent method for representing null values.
Rule 4: Database Description Rule
The description of a database is stored and maintained in the form of tables. This allows users with appropriate authority to query information using the same language. This implies that a data dictionary should be present within the RDBMS. It constructed out of tables that can be examined by using the structured query language (SQL).
Rule 5: Comprehensive Data Sub-Language
The RDBMS must be completely manageable through its extension of SQL. The SQL should support Data Definition, Views, Data Manipulation, Integrity Constraints, and Transaction Boundary.
Rule 6: View Updating
Any view that can be defined using a combination of base tables, and It is updated in theoretically. It must also be capable of being updated by the RDBMS.
Rule 7: High-Level Update, Insert, Delete
An RDBMS must do more than just be able to retrieve relational data sets. It must also be possible to insert, update and delete data items from the relational set.
Rule 8: Physical Data Independence
Physical Data Independence refers to the ability to modify the schema followed at the physical level without causing application programs to be rewritten. However, it makes to change physical storage representation or access methods do not require changes to be made to the application programs which is used to manipulate data in the tables.
Rule 9: Logical Data Independence
Logical Data Independence refers to the ability to modify the conceptual schema without causing any changes in the schema followed at the view level.
Rule 10: The Distribution Rule
An RDBMS must have distribution independence, thus it must make it possible for the database to be distributed across multiple computers even though they are having heterogeneous platforms both for hardware and operating system. So, it is one of the most attractive aspects of RDBMS.
Rule 11: Non-Subversion
If the RDBMS supports facilities allowing application programs to operate on a table a row at a time, then an application program using this type of database access is prevented from bypassing entity-integrity constraints that may be defined for the database.
Rule 12: Integrity Rule
Integrity constraints specify that a particular relational database must be definable in SQL and some other data sub-language. So, integrity constraints must be store in the catalogue but not in the application programs.
1. Types of DBMS
2. Role of Database Administrator
3. Three Level Architecture
4. Comparison Between Hierarchical model Network model Relational model
5. Entity Relationship Diagram | ER Model
6. Codd’s Rules
7. Different Types of Keys in DBMS
8. Normalization in DBMS: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF
9. Relational Algebra
10. Transaction States in DBMS
11. ACID Properties of Transactions
12. Armstrong’s Axioms