Operators in C

An expression consists of variables and constants separated by operators. C language uses 7 types of operators as listed below:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Increment and decrement operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Conditional Operators
  • Bitwise Operators

    1. Arithmetic Operators : Arithmetic Operators are used to perform arithmetic operations.

    OperatorMeaningExampleResult
    +addition4+26
    -subtraction4-22
    *multiplication4*28
    /division4/22
    %modulus4%20

    2. Relational Operators : Relational Operators are used to compare the values of operands or expressions to produce a logical value. A logical is either true or false.

    OperatorMeaningExampleResult
    <less than4<3false
    >greater than4>3true
    <=less than or equal to4<=3false
    >=greater than or equal to4>=3true
    (==)equal to4==3false
    !=not equal to4!=3true

    3. Logical Operators : Logical Operators are used to connect more relational operations to form a complex expression that is called Logical Operators or Logical expression. A value obtained by evaluating a logical expression is always logical either true or false.

    OperatorMeaningExampleResult
    &&logical and(4<3)&&(4>3)false
    ||logical or(4<2) || (4>3)true
    !logical not! (4<2)true

    4. Increment and Decrement operators (++ and – –) : Increment operator (++) is used to increase the value of an integer or char variable by 1. Decrement operator (- -) is used to reduce the value of an integer or char variable by 1. Consider the following examples :

    a = 25;
    a++ or ++a will produce the result a = 26
    a = 25;
    a- – or – -a will produce the result a = 24

    5. Assignment Operators : Assignment Operators are used to perform arithmetic operations while assigning a value to a variable.

    6. Conditional Operators or Ternary Operators (?:) : Conditional Operators is used to check a condition and select a value depending on the value of the condition. Normally the selected value will be assigned to a variable which has the following form :

    variable=(condition)?value1:value2;
    

    Example :

    big=(x>y)?x:y;
    

    7. Bitwise Operators : Bitwise Operators are used to perform operations at binary digit level. These operators are not commonly used and used only in special applications where optimized use of storage is required.

    OperatorMeaning
    <<Shifts the bits to left
    >>Shifts the bit to right
    ~Bitwise inversion
    &Bitwise logical and
    |Bitwise logical or
    ^Bitwise exclusive or