Control Statements in C with Examples

Control Statements in C are used to execute/transfer the control from one part of the program to another depending on a condition. These statements are also called as conditional statements.
There are two types of Control Statements in C:
1. if-else statement
2. switch statement
Control Statements in C

if-else statement:

if-else statement is used to execute a statement block or a single statement depending on the value of a condition. It has the following syntax :

if(condition)
{
  - - - - - - - - -
 <true block>
  - - - - - - - - -
}
else
{
  - - - - - - - - -
  <false block>
  - - - - - - - - -
}  // where <condition> is a logical expression which will have the value <strong>true</strong> or <strong>false .</strong>

Nested if-else Statement :

An if statement may have another if statement in the < true block > and < false block >. This compound statement is called nested if statement.

if(condition 1)
if(condition 2)
{
  - - - - - - - - -
 <true block 1>
  - - - - - - - - -
}
else
{
  - - - - - - - - -
  <false block 1>
  - - - - - - - - -
} 
else
if(condition 3)
{
  - - - - - - - - -
 <true block 2>
  - - - - - - - - -
}
else
{
  - - - - - - - - -
  <false block 2> 
  - - - - - - - - -
} 

Switch statement :

switch statement is used to execute a block of statements depending on the value of a variable or an expression. It has the following syntax :

switch (<expression>)
{
 case <label 1>: {
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      <statement 1>
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      break;
                  }
case <label 2>:  {
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      <statement 2>
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      break;
                  }
case <label 3>:  {
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      <statement 3>
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      break;
                  }
case <label n>:  {
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      <statement n>
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      break;
                  }
default:          {
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      <default statement>
                     - - - - - - - - - -
                      break;
                  }
}  // where <expression> refers any int or char expression or variable. <label 1>, <label 2>, <label 3>, <label n> are the values which will match with the value of the expression.
break is a statement which will transfer the control to the end of switch statement.