Interrupts in Computer Architecture
An interrupt is a signal to the processor to suspend the currently executing program, and run a specified routine. Whenever the execution of the routine is completed, the processor switches to its original program.
Interrupts are four types:
1. Program Interrupt
3. I/O Interrupt
4. Hardware Interrupt
This type of interrupt is generated by illegal instructions in the program, such as division by zero, arithmetic overflow and reference outside a user’s allowed memory space. Whenever the program interrupt happened the operating system sends a signal to the processor to suspend the currently executing job.
This type of interrupt is generated by a clock within the processor. Whenever the time slot of the processor expired, the operating system sends the interrupt signal to the processor to suspend the current job.
This type of interrupts are generated by I/O controller.
Examaple: If the CPU issue read command to the I/O module, the I/O module is ready at that time, and then the I/O module sends the interrupt signal to the CPU about the status.
This type of interrupts are generated hardware components. If any hardware component fails due to a technical problem. They generate interrupts such as memory failure.