UPS Working Principle and Block Diagram
UPS is a device that provides backup power when utility power fails, either long enough for critical equipment to shut down gracefully. So that no data is lost, or long enough to keep required loads operational until a generator comes online. Conditions incoming power so that all-too-common sags and surges don’t damage sensitive electronic gear.
Classification of UPS:
There are mainly three varieties of UPS Systems:
- Single-conversion UPS systems
- Double-conversion UPS systems
- Multi-mode UPS systems
UPS Working Principle:
1. Single-conversion UPS systems: In Single-conversion UPS systems, these feed incoming utility AC power to IT equipment. If the AC input supply falls out of predefined limits, the UPS utilizes its inverter to draw current from the battery. It also disconnects the AC input supply to prevent back-feed from the inverter to the utility. The UPS stays on battery power until the AC input returns to normal tolerances or the battery run out of power, whichever happens first.
2. Double-conversion UPS systems: The double-conversion UPS isolates critical loads from raw utility power completely, ensuring that IT equipment receives only clean, reliable electricity. In normal operation, a double-conversion UPS continually processes power twice. If the AC input supply falls out of predefined limits, however, the input rectifier shuts off and the output inverter begins drawing power from the battery instead. The UPS continues to utilize battery power until the AC input returns to normal tolerances or the battery run out of power, whichever occurs sooner. In case of a severe overload of the inverter, or a failure of the rectifier or inverter, the static switch bypass path is turned on quickly, to support the output loads.
3. Multi-mode UPS systems: These combine features of both single and double-conversion technologies while providing substantial improvements in both efficiency and reliability that is called Multi-mode UPS systems. Multi-mode UPS is designed to dynamically strike an ideal balance between efficiency and protection. Under normal conditions, they provide maximum efficiency. When problems occur,
However, they automatically sacrifice some efficiency to deliver maximum levels of protection. The result is that data centres can save tens of thousands a year on energy without compromising data centre performance or reliability.