Computer Keyboard Keys and Their Functions

Computer Keyboard Keys:

The most common input device is the keyboard. The keyboard allows a user to communicate with the PC through keystrokes that represent character data and commands. The computer keyboard has a variety of keys that are dedicated to specific functions. Generally, computer keyboard keys are classified into 8 types:

    1. Alphabet Key
    2. Number Key
    3. Aero Key
    4. Numeric & Logical Key
    5. Functional Key
    6. Special Key
    7. Multimedia Key
    8. Internet Key


Keyboard keys and their functions:

All Computer Keyboard Keys and Their Functions described below:

Alphabetic key:

The alphabetic keys along with the row numbers and special characters. These keys match those on a typewriter. The alphabet Keys include All English Alphabet letters (A – Z).

Number Key:

This Number Key embedded on the alphabetic key. These keys are located on the top of the alphabetic keys. Do the Number Keys include punctuation and special characters, such as \ (backslash), | (vertical bar), / (forward slash),? (question mark), . (period/dot), > (greater than), (comma), < (less than), ; (semi-colon), : (colon), ’ (single quote/apostrophe), ” (double-quote), [ (open/left bracket), { (open/left brace), ] (close/right bracket), } (close/right bracket).

Aero Key:

These keys are located to the right of the alphabetic keys. This group of keys has four smaller groups of keys, such as Left Arrow, Right Arrow, Top Arrow & Down Arrow Key.

Numeric & Logical Key:

The Numeric keypad is located on the extreme right side of nearly all modern keyboards. It contains keys for ten numbers (0 – 9), as well as the four arithmetic functions that say Logical Key. The Numeric keypad can also be used as a cursor control pad by toggling the NUM LOCK key.

Function Keys on Keyboard:

The Functional Key is typically located across the top of a keyboard today. Current keyboards have 12 functional keys (F1 – F12).


  • F1+Windows key opens the help menu.
  • Enter BIOS setup as Some older computers are booting.
  • F2:

  • In MS-Excel, F2 edits the active cell.
  • Ctrl + F2 displays a print preview in MS-Word.
  • Enter BIOS setup as Some older computers are booting
  • F3:

  • In MS-DOS, F3 repeats the last command entered.
  • It opens a search feature in Windows Explorer.
  • In MS Word, Ctrl+F3 lowercases any highlighted text.
  • Shift+F3 changes the text from upper to lowercase or a capital letter at the beginning of every word.
  • F4:

  • Alt+F4 closes the program which is currently active in Microsoft Windows.
  • Ctrl+F4 is a shortcut key most often used to close a tab or window within a program.
  • F5:

  • It reloads or refreshes the document window or page.
  • Ctrl+F5 will refresh a web page and clear the cache.
  • It starts slide show in MS-Powerpoint.
  • F6:

  • Ctrl+Shift+F6 switch between Microsoft Word documents.
  • F7:

  • F7 is mainly used to spell check and grammar check a document in MS Word and Outlook.
  • This key uses for viewing the history of all the commands entered in that window.
  • F8:

  • F8 is used to enter the Windows startup menu that is commonly used to access Windows Safe Mode.
  • It Displays a thumbnail image for all workspaces in macOS.
  • F9:

  • F9 key refresh a document in Microsoft Word.
  • This functional key is used to send and receive emails in Outlook.
  • F10:

  • F10 key used to enter BIOS setup as the computer is booting.
  • Ctrl + F10 used to maximize the window in MS-Word
  • F11:

  • Ctrl+F11 used to access the hidden recovery partition on many computers.
  • F12:

  • Ctrl+F12 opens a document in MS-Word.
  • Shift+F12 saves the MS-Word document.
  • Ctrl+Shift+F12 prints a document in MS-Word.
  • This function key is used to Get to Boot Menu in many company computers.
  • Special keys on keyboard and Their Functions:

    i. Scroll Lock:

    In the past, this Scroll Lock has existed on the keyboard. When Scroll Lock selected, pressing the arrow keys resulted in scrolling through a page of text rather than moving the cursor line by line.

    ii. Caps Lock:

    The CAPS LOCK key locks the alphabetic keys into uppercase characters.

    iii. Num Lock:

    When the Num Lock key pressed, the numbers on the number pad of the keyboard activated. When the Num Lock key is not pressed, it’s the arrows and special keys on the number pad which are active. The number pad is a block of numbers that looks like an upside-down numeric keypad.

    iv. Shift:

    The SHIFT key is used to toggle a key between its lowercase and uppercase characters. It also used on international keyboards to access special characters on keys where there are more than two characters on the key. Press it down at the same time as the letter/character key to produce the special character shown on the bottom right side of the key.

    v. Enter:

    This Enter key is the most used key on the keyboard. The ENTER key performs a variety of functions from ending the line or entry in application software to serving as a weapon trigger in a shooting game. In word processors, the ENTER key simulates the action of the carriage return button on an electric typewriter.

    vi. Space:

    The SPACEBAR key commonly referred to as the white space key. The SPACEBAR produces one character of white space.

    vi. Backspace:

    The BACKSPACE key erases a character by replacing it with the character or white space that follows it.

    vii. Ctrl:

    The Ctrl key is mainly used in many keyboard shortcuts.

    viii. Alt:

    The Alt key is also used in many keyboard shortcuts.

    ix. Tab:

    Tab key used to move between items or move forward 5 characters. The TAB key produces defaults to half an inch of white space.

    x. Print Screen SysRq:

    When pressing the Print Screen key, it captures an image of your entire screen. Print Screen SysRq key mainly used to take screenshots of the entire screen.

    xi. Pause Break:

    In its default mode (PAUSE), this key will if enabled by software, pause the display or the action of an application program. If used in combination with the CTRL key, the alternate mode of this key interrupts or halts some software programs, primarily MS-DOS commands and applications. Using the CTRL and BREAK keys together is the same as using the CTRL and C keys to break an action.

    xii. ESC:

    The Escape key is typically enabled as an exit key by most software applications. It also used in combination with other keys to create special key values and to indicate other actions. For example, in Windows, the ESC key used to close a context menu.

    xiii. Insert:

    When pressing this insert key switches between two modes when you are typing. In the first mode, what you type appears before the cursor and pushes any text that comes after it to the right. In the second mode, any text that you type successively replaces any text that is to the right of the cursor.

    xiv. Delete:

    This key is used to delete any content, file, media, etc.

    xv. Home:

    The Home key uses for returning the text cursor to the beginning of the line on which you’re currently typing. This key may also move the cursor to the beginning of a document, or cell.

    xvi. Page Up:

    If you are currently being worked has more than one page in a document, then this Page Up key is used to move or scroll up one page.

    xvii.Page Down:

    If you are currently being worked has more than one page in a document, then this Page Down key is used to scroll down one page.

    xviii. End:

    The End key uses for moving the cursor to the end of the line.

    xix. Windows Key:

    Most newer keyboards have added three Windows-specific keys on either side of the SPACEBAR that serve as shortcuts to the Windows menus.

    Multimedia Key:

    Multimedia key is a special type of key that performs some entertainment function. But those keys are not included with many traditional 104-key keyboards. Such as Play/Pause, Music Media Player, Volume+/Volume-, and Mute.

    Internet Key:

    Internet key is a special type of key that is used to access Internet Explorer easily. Otherwise, we can work on the Internet by using those keys.