Types of Cryptography in Network Security


The Greek word Cryptography means Secret Writing. Today, the term means the art of transforming a message to make it secure and immune to attack. Any system must assure privacy, there should not be any unauthorized access to it. One should make it clear that unauthorized access can’t be prevented completely but information can be protected such that unauthorized agents can’t understand it.

Types of Cryptography:

There are mainly two types of Cryptography in Network Security:

    1. Symmetric-key Cryptography
    2. Public-key Cryptography

Symmetric-key Cryptography:

In Symmetric-key Cryptography, the same key is used by both the sender and the receiver. The sender uses the key and an encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the data the receiver uses the same key and the decryption algorithm is used to decrypt the encrypted data. The algorithm used for decryption is usually the inverse of that used for encryption and the key is usually smaller.

Public-key Cryptography:

In Public-key Cryptography, every individual has two keys:
i. Public Key – It is announced publicly.
ii. Private Key – It kept secret from others.
Every individual encrypts with the public key of the intended receiver and decrypts with a private key of its own.