Parts of Computer and their functions

Basic Parts of Computer:

A computer is a collection of separate devices working together as a team. It is a general-purpose electronic device that is used to perform arithmetic and logical operations automatically. It stands for Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research. Some of those components are essential, others simply make working more pleasant and efficient. Adding extra items expands the variety of tasks you can accomplish with your computer. There are mainly 7 basic parts of a computer:

    1. System Unit
    2. Monitor
    3. Keyboard
    4. Mouse
    5. Speaker
    6. UPS
    7. Printer

1. System Unit:

The system unit controls and executes all your PC operations. It ensures that the correct information displayed on the monitor when you press a key on the keyboard. Connecting cables plug with the system unit, linking your keyboard, monitor, mouse, printer, etc with it. Moreover, the hard disk, floppy disk drive, and compact disk drive are usually inside this unit.

Parts of Computer and their functions

Inner Parts of System Unit:

The brain behind everything that takes place in your PC is contained within the system unit. Inside the system unit, several components consult your PC that runs programs handled typed instructions, and determine the result.

i. Mother-Board: All the electronic components in a PC mounted on a piece of fiberglass says the Mother-Board. It also says a Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

Parts of Computer and their functions

ii. Central Processing Unit: The Microprocessor or CPU is the computer’s most important component. It is the brain of a computer. It does all the thinking of the computer and it runs the program that you request. The CPU has three main parts:

  • ALU
  • CU
  • MU

Characteristics of Intel Processors

iii. Math Co-Processor: It is present in some computers and assists the CPU in performing its mathematical operations.

iv. RAM: When a computer switched on and it is running a program, RAM (Random Access Memory) is used for displaying the program on the screen. But when the computer is switched off, anything stored in RAM is lost. So, RAM is also said Volatile Memory.

Parts of Computer and their functions

v. Hard Disk: It is the computer’s main permanent storage unit holding a large amount of data and programs. Unlike data held in RAM, the information on your Hard-Disk is not affected when you turn off the computer.

Parts of Computer and their functions

vi. SMPS: It stands for Switch Mode Power Supply, all the computers need a 5-10 volts supply. If the components were connected to the household current, they would blow up, so the SMPS converts the high-voltage current to a low-voltage current.

vii. Expansion Slot: These long narrow connectors allow you to plug in expansion cards, also said Adaptor Cards.

2. Monitor:

The most common output device is the Monitor. The monitor visually relays an image, which created by the computer’s operating system. So, Monitor also is referred to as a VDT (Video Display Terminal) and VDU (Video Display Unit). The computer user sends manipulations through input devices, which enter the motherboard and processor. A monitor is made up of circuitry, a screen, a power supply, buttons to adjust screen settings, and a casing that holds all of these components.

Types of Output Devices in Computer

3. Keyboard:

Using a keyboard, a person can type a document, click shortcuts, access the menu, and play games. It also performs a variety of other tasks. A standard keyboard has 104 keys.

List of Input Devices of Computer

4. Mouse:

A mouse is a handheld pointing device. It designed to sit is under one hand of the user and to detect movement relative to its two-dimensional supporting surface. It has become an inseparable part of a computer system just like a keyboard.

List of Input Devices of Computer

5. Speaker:

A Speaker is an output device that connects to a computer to generate sound. The signal used to produce the sound that comes from a computer speaker is created by the computer’s sound card. The speaker is used to describe the user who is giving vocal commands to a software program.


6. UPS:

UPS is a device that provides backup power when utility power fails, either long enough for critical equipment to shut down gracefully. So that no data is lost, or long enough to keep required loads operational until a generator comes online. Conditions incoming power so that all-too-common sags and surges don’t damage sensitive electronic gear.

UPS Working Principle and Block Diagram

7. Printer:

The Printer is an important accessory for any computer system, especially for a graphics system. The printer is used for documentation, print media, books, etc.

Types of Output Devices in Computer