# 4-bit synchronous binary counter using jk flip flop

## Binary Counter:

A register that goes through a predetermined sequence of states upon the application of input pulses is called a counter. The input pulses may be clock pulses or may originate from an external source. They may occur at uniform intervals of time or at random. Counters are found in almost all equipment containing digital logic. They are used for counting the number of occurrences of an event and are useful for generating timing signals to control the sequence of operations in digital computers.

A counter that follows the binary number sequence is called a binary counter. An n-bit binary counter is a register of n flip-flops and associated gates that follows a sequence of states according to the binary count of n bits, from 0 to 2n – 1.

## 4-bit synchronous binary counter:

A counter circuit will usually employ flip-flops with complementing capabilities. Both T and JK flip-flops have this property. Remember that a JK flip-flop is complemented if both its J and K inputs are 1 and the clock goes through a positive transition. The output of the flip-flop does not change if J = K = 0. In addition, the counter may be controlled with an enable input that turns the counter on or off without removing the clock signal from the flip-flops. Synchronous binary counters have a regular pattern, as can be seen from the 4-bit binary counter shown below figure:

The C inputs of all flip-flops receive the common clock. If the count enable is 0, all J and K inputs are maintained at 0 and the output of the counter does not change. The first stage A0 is complemented when the counter is enabled and the clock goes through a positive transition. Each of the other three flip-flops is complemented when all previous least significant flip-flops are equal to 1 and the count is enabled. The chain of AND gates generates the required logic for the J and K inputs. The output carry can be used to extend the counter to more stages, with each stage having an additional flip-flop and an AND gate.