Types of Network Topology | Mesh, Star, Bus, Ring, Tree, Hybrid Topology

Topology refers to the way in which the nodes within a network are laid down either physically or logically. The topology of a network represents the connection of the links and nodes with each other. There are mainly 6 types of topology as given below :

  • Mesh Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Bus Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Hybrid Topology
  • Mesh Topology :

    In Mesh topology, each node has a dedicated point-to- point link to every other node. A fully connected mesh network having ‘n’ number of nodes has a total of nC2=n(n-1)/2 number of links.
    mesh topology

    Advantages of Mesh Topology :

    (i) Mesh topology is very robust. If a link fails, the data can be transmitted via other nodes and links as well.
    (ii) In mesh topology, there is no traffic problem and it also has full channel capacity that can be utilized specifically for carrying data between any two nodes.
    (iii) As the link is not shared by other nodes, so the data communication is highly secured.
    (iv) In case of any fault, the dedicated link helps in easily detecting the faulty path in the network.

    Star Topology :

    In star topology, each node has a dedicated link to a central node that is called ‘HUB’. HUB acts as an exchange of data between any two nodes. In a star network having ‘n’ number of nodes including the central node, the number of the link is (n-1).
    star topology

    Advantages of Star Topology :

    (i) Less number of links is required to install the network.
    (ii) The installation of an additional node requires only one link.
    (iii) Each node requires only one hardware port.
    (iv) The easy structure of the star network facilitates it to install and reconfigure.
    (v) Failure of one link or node doesn’t affect the operation of the rest of the network.

    Bus Topology :

    In a Bus topology, a link cable usually known as Backbone which travels from one place to another and different nodes are connected to the backbone via drop lines and taps. Drop lines are a cable running between the device and the backbone. Taps are generally punched connectors. Bus topology uses multipoint communication rather than point-to-point communication.
    bus topology

    Advantages of Bus Topology :

    (i) It is easy to install devices in bus topology.
    (ii) As a single backbone travels so it is easy to lay down in any suitable path.
    (iii) Devices can be attached to the nearest point of the backbone, so the length of the drop line is very small.
    (iv) No routing control is required as the message can be reached to all the nodes.

    Ring Topology :

    In ring topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only with the next device on either side of it. All the devices form a closed loop and signal travel in one direction through the ring until it reaches the destination. Each device receives the message and if the destination device is different from itself and it regenerates the message and passes on to the next device.
    ring topology

    Advantages of Ring Topology :

    (i) It is easy to install and reconfigure.
    (ii) Adding an extra node means the introduction of a new connection and the removal of a node means the removal of a connection, so the process is very simple.

    Tree Topology :

    Tree topology is a variation of star topology. In this topology, some of the nodes are connected to the central node that is called HUB. Some of the nodes are connected to the secondary hub which is connected to the central hub. The central hub is an active hub, it contains repeater but the secondary hub may be active or passive.
    tree topology

    Advantages of Tree Topology :

    (i) Using of secondary hub allows more devices to be attached to the network.
    (ii) As the secondary hubs are planted locally and a single cable is used to connect it with the central hub, this may require less cabling thereby reducing the cost.
    (iii) Different sections of the network remain active even in case of breakdown of the central hub.

    Hybrid Topology :

    Hybrid Topology is a combination of two or more topologies.