Entity Relationship Diagram | ER Model

In a database management system (DBMS), a group of information or data which is of interest to an organization that is called an Entity. A model that represents system data by entity and relationship sets that is called Entity Relationship Diagram (E-R Diagram) or Entity Relationship Model (E-R Model).
The E-R model is based on a perception of real world which consists of a set of basic objects. This E-R diagram was initially developed by P.P. Chen.
Components of E-R Model : E-R Model consist of the following major components :

  • Entity
  • Attributes
  • Key attributes
  • Relationships
    1. Entity : An entity is a class of persons, place, objects, events or concepts about which we need to collect and store data. Here showing different entities include :

  • Persons : Employee, students, customer etc.
  • Places : Office, Building, Room etc.
  • Objects : Books, Vehicle, Machine etc.
  • Events : Sale, Registration, Order etc.
  • Concepts : Account, Qualification, Course etc.

    Entity Set : An entity set is the collection of entities of the same type entities which share common properties or attributes.
    Example : The set of all employees of an organization can be called as the entity set Employee.

    2. Attributes : Each entity can have a number of characteristics. The characteristics of an entity are called Attributes. An attribute is a descriptive property or characteristics of an entity. Some attributes can be logically grouped into super attributes called Compound Attribute.

    3. Key attributes : The Key attributes is an attribute that uniquely identifies an entity in the entity set.

    4. Relationships : An association of several entities in an Entity Relation model is called Relationship.
    There are three types of relationships are exist :
    (i) One to One Relationship (1:1)
    (ii) One to Many Relationship (1:M)
    (iii) Many to Many Relationship (M:M)

    (i) One to One Relationship (1:1) : (i) One to One Relationship is an association only between two entities.
    Example : In a College, each department has only one head of the department.
    one to one
    (ii) One to Many Relationship (1:M) : One to Many Relationship exists when one entity is related to more than one entity.
    Example : A father may have many children but a child has one father.
    many
    (iii) Many to Many Relationship (M:M) : A Many to Many Relationship (M:M) indicates that entities may have many relationships among each other.
    Example : One customer may buy many item of goods and one item of goods may be bought by many customers.
    many to many